Common and Distinctive Functions of the Hippo Effectors Taz and Yap in Skeletal Muscle Stem Cell Function
Congshan Sun et al., STEM CELLS
Hippo pathway effectors Yap and Taz are appealing therapeutic targets in cancer and regenerative medicine, and play key roles in cell proliferation and tissue growth. This study analyzed Taz in comparison with Yap in muscle stem cells and found that Taz promoted proliferation, a function shared with Yap. However, Taz also enhanced differentiation into myotubes. Muscle growth was affected in Taz (Wwtr1–/–) knockout mice, while satellite cell-specific conditional knockout of Yap produced a regeneration deficit. In summary, Taz and Yap have overlapping functions in promoting myoblast proliferation but Taz also enhances myogenic differentiation.
Cranioplasty with Adipose‐Derived Stem Cells, Beta‐Tricalcium Phosphate Granules and Supporting Mesh: Six‐Year Clinical Follow‐Up Results
Tuomo Thesleff et al., STEM CELLS Translational Medicine
In this article, the authors report long-term results of five patients who received a cranioplasty using autologous adipose-derived stem cells seeded on beta-tricalcium phosphate granules. The initial results were promising, with no serious complications. Nevertheless, the 6-year follow-up results of the five cases are unsatisfactory. The use of this strategy for cranial defect reconstruction must be studied further before continuing with clinical trials and before applying the method in clinical practice.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stabilize Axonal Transports for Autophagic Clearance of α‐Synuclein in Parkinsonian Models
Se Hee Oh et al., STEM CELLS
α-Synuclein directly destabilizes microtubule (MT) via tau phosphorylation and defects in axonal transport mechanisms are the primary events leading to an abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein that causes nigral dopaminergic cell loss. This data indicate that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exert neuroprotective effects through increased MT-dependent axonal trafficking by inhibiting α-synuclein-induced tau phosphorylation. Thus, the use of MSCs as pharmacological modulators of MT assembly or axonal transport may be an effective therapeutic approach in α-synucleinopathies.
Serge Gregoire et al., STEM CELLS
Yin Yang 1 (YY1) regulates the commitment of mesodermal precursors into cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) and an enforced expression of YY1 prevents cardiomyogenic differentiation of CPCs. The maintenance of cardiac progenitor phenotype by YY1 is associated with its ability to modulate active and repressive histone marks at cardiac enhancers of key developmental transcription factors. These results define a mechanistic role for YY1 to modulate cardiogenesis as a chromatin regulator of Nkx2–5 and other cardiac genes.
Video abstract from Dr. Cooke, et al. on his recently published STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Retinoic Acid Inducible Gene 1 Protein (RIG1)-like Receptor Pathway is Required for Efficient Nuclear Reprogramming." Read the paper here.
Video abstract from Drs. Cox, Hetz, Liao, Aertker, Ewing-Cobbs, Juranek, Savitz, Jackson, Romanowska-Pawliczek, Triolo, Dash, Pedroza, Lee, Worth, Aisiku, Choi, Holcomb, and Kitagawa on their recently published STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Treatment of Severe Adult Traumatic Brain Injury Using Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells." Read the paper here.Video Library