Ryuichi Tatsumi et al., STEM CELLS
This study demonstrates that the semaphorin 3A ligand secreted from the early-differentiated myogenic stem satellite cells, is a key “commitment factor” as it establishes the slow-fiber population during muscle regeneration through signaling from a cell-membrane receptor (neuropilin2-plexinA3) → myogenin → slow myosin. This work on stem-cell biology is fundamental to muscle function, and has major implications for developing novel strategies in health sciences for promoting slow-fiber expression in humans to combat sarcopenia, promote muscle endurance and potentially slow the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and importantly for strategies to sustain food security through meat-animal production.
Human Neural Stem Cell Biodistribution and Predicted Tumor Coverage by a Diffusible Therapeutic in a Mouse Glioma Model
Michael E. Barish et al., STEM CELLS Translational Medicine
Neural stem cells (NSCs) intrinsically migrate to sites of brain tumors, and engineered NSCs offer a promising mechanism for local delivery of therapeutic agents. While many groups have observed that therapeutically modified NSCs migrate selectively to glioma foci, quantitative assessments of NSC migration efficiency and local distribution at tumor sites, as well as tumor coverage estimated for the therapeutics delivered by these NSCs, have been difficult to perform. In this article, the authors present a quantitative analysis of immunostained serially sectioned formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) brain tissue across multiple test animals, thereby providing a paradigm facilitating optimization of this and other cell-based therapies.
CD36 Is a Marker of Human Adipocyte Progenitors with Pronounced Adipogenic and Triglyceride Accumulation Potential
Hui Gao et al., STEM CELLS
Using a combination of different human cell systems, researchers identified the cell surface protein CD36 as a marker of adipose tissue-derived stem cells with a pronounced propensity to undergo adipocyte differentiation. This is at least partly mediated by CD36 facilitating lipid uptake in immature adipocyte progenitors. Furthermore, expression of CD36 in vivo is linked to adipose depots with high adipogenic capacity. Given the current lack of immortalized human adipocyte cell lines, these results may pave the way for the development of better fat cell systems to allow mechanistic insights as well as improving our understanding of the link between adipogenesis and metabolic phenotype.
Generation of Integration‐Free Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Urine‐Derived Cells Isolated from Individuals with Down Syndrome
Young M. Lee et al., STEM CELLS Translational Medicine
In this study, the authors describe a method for derivation, differentiation, and characterization of trisomy 21 (T21) induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from urine-derived epithelial cells using nonintegrating episomal vectors. The authors show that these iPSCs maintain chromosomal stability for 20 passages, can be differentiated into glutamatergic neurons and cardiomyocytes, and are more sensitive to proteotoxic stress than euploid iPSCs. iPSCs were generated effectively and noninvasively from participants with Down syndrome (DS) in an ongoing clinical trial, and thus address most shortcomings of previously generated T21 iPSC lines. These techniques should improve the quality and extend the application of iPSCs in modeling DS and may lead to future human cell-based platforms for high-throughput drug screening in translational preclinical studies, and should help streamline cell-banking applications.
Video abstract from Dr. Cooke, et al. on his recently published STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Retinoic Acid Inducible Gene 1 Protein (RIG1)-like Receptor Pathway is Required for Efficient Nuclear Reprogramming." Read the paper here.
Video abstract from Drs. Cox, Hetz, Liao, Aertker, Ewing-Cobbs, Juranek, Savitz, Jackson, Romanowska-Pawliczek, Triolo, Dash, Pedroza, Lee, Worth, Aisiku, Choi, Holcomb, and Kitagawa on their recently published STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Treatment of Severe Adult Traumatic Brain Injury Using Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells." Read the paper here.Video Library