Constitutive Activation of NIK Impairs the Self‐Renewal of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells and Induces Bone Marrow Failure
Yan Xiu et al., STEM CELLS
This study demonstrated that activation of NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) is sufficient to induce bone marrow failure through dysregulating multifaceted pathways regulating HSPC self-renewal, apoptosis, proliferation, inflammatory responses, and bone marrow microenvironment. These results have significant relevance for understanding how NIK-non-canonical signaling maintains normal hematopoiesis and contributes to the development of bone marrow failure.
Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Derived Exosomes Promote Survival of Retinal Ganglion Cells Through miRNA-Dependent Mechanisms
Ben Mead and Stanislov Tomorov, STEM CELLS Translational Medicine
The dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), such as seen with glaucoma and traumatic optic neuropathy is a major cause of blindness. While mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have a demonstrable neuroprotective effect at protecting RGC, ideally the active components would be purified and delivered in a cell-free manner. This study shows that exosomes, small extracellular vesicles secreted from MSC can be easily purified from MSC and, when delivered into a rodent model of optic nerve crush, protect RGC from death and preserve function.
Abrogation of Gap Junctional Communication in ES Cells Results in a Disruption of Primitive Endoderm Formation in Embryoid Bodies
Philipp Wörsdörfer et al., STEM CELLS
This study found that Cx43 and Cx45 expression is required for the establishment of primitive endoderm, but it has no apparent role in self renewal and pluripotency maintenance. This work helps understand the mechanisms underlying early lineage specification, essential to the understanding of embryonic development and stem cell-based organoid cultures.
Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as Mediators of Anti-Inflammatory Effects: Endorsement of Macrophage
Claudia Lo Sicco et al., STEM CELLS Translational Medicine
Mesenchymal stem cell paracrine activity favors tissue repair modulating inflammation-associated immune cells. An alternative approach to regulate the inflammatory response is here proposed. This strategy relies on the use of extracellular vesicles derived from human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells as mediators of the anti-inflammatory effects, switching macrophages into an alternative activation profile. Despite the remaining challenges, these results highlight the importance of extracellular vesicles as a handy cell-free approach guiding regenerative processes.
Video abstract from Dr. Dunaway et al. on his recently published STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Dental Pulp Stem Cells Model Early Life and Imprinted DNA Methylation Patterns." Read the paper here.
Video abstract from Dr. Hochane et al. on his recently published STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Low-Dose Pesticide Mixture Induces Senescence in Normal Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) and Promotes Tumorigenic Phenotype in Premalignant MSC." Read the paper here.Video Library